Henry David Thoreau — was an American philosopher, poet, and environmental scientist whose major work, Walden , draws upon each of these identities in meditating on the concrete problems of living in the world as a human being. He sought to revive a conception of philosophy as a way of life, not only a mode of reflective thought and discourse. He was well-versed in classical Greek and Roman philosophy, ranging from the pre-Socratics through the Hellenistic schools, and was also an avid student of the ancient scriptures and wisdom literature of various Asian traditions. He discussed his own scientific findings with leading naturalists of the day, and read the latest work of Humboldt and Darwin with interest and admiration. His philosophical explorations of self and world led him to develop an epistemology of embodied perception and a non-dualistic account of mental and material life. In addition to his focus on ethics in an existential spirit, Thoreau also makes unique contributions to ontology, the philosophy of science, and radical political thought.
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Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late s and s in the eastern United States. Transcendentalists saw divine experience inherent in the every day, rather than believing in a distant heaven. Transcendentalists saw physical and spiritual phenomena as part of dynamic processes rather than discrete entities. Transcendentalism emphasizes subjective intuition over objective empiricism.
Thoreau is one of the most read and most influential of American authors, with a readership and a following around the world. His writings have been reprinted countless times, both in English and in translation into many foreign languages. His Walden is required reading in American literature courses at the college level.
Jose Marti was born in Havana, on January 28, , to a sergeant of the Spanish garrison who had retired to become a watchman and his wife from the Canary Islands. I want, in the shadow of a wing, tell this tale in bloom: the girl from Guatemala, the one who died of love. The bouquets were of lilies; and the borders of reseda and jasmine; we buried her in a silk box; She gave the forgetful a scent pad; he returned, he returned married; she died of love.