Xi Jinping faces going forward. Their article offers concrete steps toward building a trilateral deterrence partnership. Sarah Jacobs Gamberini and Lawrence Rubin recently wrote an article in the Foreign Policy Research Institute's Orbis journal of world affairs researching how quantum sensing could impact WMD, deterrence, and modern warfare. Gerald Epstein's latest article in The Nonproliferation Review explores the increased likelihood of the development and potential use of biological weapons by Russia and China. This paper is part of a special issue on chemical and biological warfare that is being published in memory of Raymond A.
Causes & Explanations of Suicide Terrorism: A Systematic Review
Terrorism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
The definition of terrorism is a difficult concept to map and has been the source of contention in academia and policy for a several years now. Where some scholars and experts have chosen to work with open-ended definitions, others have delineated several different types of definitions, all exploring and attempting to encompass the many elements that typify what terrorism is. In this paper, I will unpack why it is important to understand how these definitions are politically crafted and codified into law and policy by various dominant states in the West. I will also illustrate why it is important that anyone undertaking a critical analysis of terrorist studies must not only examine why the definition of terrorism is important, but also who is defined as a terrorist as opposed to a freedom fighter, and by whom all of this definitional work is done. In doing so, I hope to raise critical questions about why the terms terrorism and terrorist are controversial, what the politics behind those decisions are and what the mechanisms are for the resolution of this controversy over time and in different contexts. Lastly, I will draw on the contemporary debates about terrorist violence and who perpetrates it in the United States of America to shed light on the fact that controversy around these issues cannot be resolved where there is no will to reach resolution. Scholars have long written about the complex issues involved in attempting to find a universal definition of terrorism.
Why has Defining Terrorism Proved so Difficult?
The left-right political spectrum is used to create a model that shows a spectrum of political positions. Traditionally there is a 2-axis spectrum of left and right, but there are also many widely adopted 4-axis model. These models generally put political positions, ideologies, and parties like social equality, liberty, liberals, Democrats, etc on the left and social hierarchy, authority, conservatives, and Republicans on the right. Further, there are popular models that break positions into those of economy and those of force, creating a 4-axis model consisting of two different left-right paradigms.
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